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STUDYING CHRYSAN’S GROWTH AND OUTCOME ON PLANTING
MEDIA’S VARIATION AND LEAVE MANURE
Zulfa Tsania Yusuf
1
, Slamet Rohadi Suparto
2
, Wiyantono
Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
1
zlftsy1189@gmail.com
2
slametbelgam@gmail.com
PAPER INFO ABSTRACT
Received:
February 2022
Revised: March
2022
Approved: March
2022
Background: Chrysanthemum is a strategic floriculture commodity to be
developed. The growth and production of flowers are influenced by many
factors including growing media and fertilization.
Aim: This study aims to examine the effect of variations in planting media
and concentrations of foliar fertilizer on the growth and yield of
chrysanthemum.
Method: The study was conducted in a Completely Randomized Block
Design with three replications. Treatment of planting media consisted of cow
manure: husk charcoal: bamboo leaf humus (1:1:1), cow manure: husk
charcoal: cocopeat (1:1:1), and cow manure: husk charcoal. : wood sawdust
compost (1:1:1). Treatment of foliar fertilizer concentrations consisted of
control (0 g/l); 2 g/l; 4 g/l; and 6 g/l. The data obtained were analyzed using
the F test, if there was a significant variation, then proceed with the DMRT
test at α 5%.
Findings: The results showed that the planting media treatment of cow
manure: husk charcoal: bamboo leaf humus, had a better effect than other
media, indicated by the variables of plant height, crown diameter, stem
diameter, number of branches, number of flowers, flower diameter, flower
initiation time, flower coloring time, and harvest time.
KEYWORDS
Chrysanthemum; organic growing media; leaf fertilizer
INTRODUCTION
Indonesia is a tropical country with the second-largest level of biodiversity in the world
(Harniati & Jamil, 2020), so it has the potential to develop the agricultural sector. One of the
strategic floriculture commodities is the chrysanthemum plant. Exports of chrysanthemum
crops from January to May 2019 reached 11.7 tons to Japan and several other countries as
export destinations, namely Kuwait, Malaysia, and Singapore. The value of floriculture exports
in the last three years has also continued to increase, in 2018 - 2019 amounted to US$ 13.53
million (12.1%) and experienced a significant increase of US $ 19.98 million in 2020
(Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia, 2021).
Chrysanthemum plants based on their use can be divided into two, namely cut
chrysanthemums and potted chrysanthemums. Houseplants in pots today promise considerable
business opportunities to develop because they have their own appeal and are more functional.
Ornamental plants in pots can be used as indoor and outdoor decorations, as parcels, have a
high aesthetic value, can be adjusted to various types of pots, and do not require a large place
(Rugayah et al., 2020). The type of variety of potted chrysanthemum plants produced by plant
breeding is still very limited, so modifications are needed on cut chrysanthemum plants in order
to be used as ornamental plants in pots.
Technology inputs are very important so that modified cut chrysanthemum plants meet the
criteria for potted chrysanthemum plants. Efforts that can be made to get the quality of pot
Studying Chrysan’s Growth and Outcome on Planting Media’s Variation and Leave Manure
660 Interdisciplinary Social Studies, 1(6), Mar 2022
chrysanthemum plants that are in accordance with SNI standards, in general, are by adding
fertilizers, applying growing regulatory substances, and using various types of appropriate
planting media. Planting media is one factor that is very influential in supporting plant growth.
The requirement of a good planting medium is that it can provide sufficient nutrients, has a
good level of humidity, aeration, and porosity, and is optimal for the growth and development
of plant roots, while the ideal volume size for potted plants is a size that is able to support the
growth of silverware, nutrient supply, water, and oxygen for Suparwoto plants (2020).
Planting media that is light has enough nutrients, and is good for plant rooting is one of
the important things to consider for plants in pots (Rahmawati, 2020). Planting media that are
often used for ornamental plants in pots are organic planting media such as bamboo leaf humus,
husk charcoal, cocopeat, fermentation of sawdust waste, fern roots, and so on. The
disadvantage of using variations in organic planting media without soil is that the nutrients
contained in it are not complete compared to soil planting media.
Factors that greatly affect the growth of chrysanthemum plants include the provision of
fertilizer. There are various methods of giving fertilizer, one of which is the provision of
fertilizer through the leaves. The provision of leaf fertilizer is applied by spraying through the
leaves, so plants will quickly absorb nutrients (Musdalifah & Napitupulu, 2020). The provision
of leaf fertilizer is more effectively applied to planting media with low fertility rates because
the leaves are able to absorb 90% of the nutrients provided, while the roots are only able to
absorb nutrients as much as 10% (Lingga & Marsono, 2013).
This research aims to: 1) Know the good planting media for the growth and yield of
chrysanthemum; 2) Know the concentration of leaf fertilizers that are good for the growth and
yield of chrysanthemums; 3) Know the combination of planting media and the concentration
of leaf fertilizers that are good for the growth and yield of chrysanthemums.
METHOD
This research was conducted in Karangtengah Village, Baturraden District, Banyumas
Regency in January - August 2021. The data obtained from the results of the studwereas
analyzed using a variety analysis at the 5 % error rate. If the results of the analysis are real, it
is followed by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) test at an error level of 5%. The
materials used in this study are rooted cutting seeds of Redayani variety cut chrysanthemum
plants, fungicides, insecticides, husk charcoal, cow pen solid waste fertilizer, bamboo leaf
humus, cocopeat, sawdust compost, Growmore leaf fertilizer (20-20-20), Growmore leaf
fertilizer (10-55-10), paclobutrazol, and water. Tools used in this study include pot (diameter
17 cm), UV plastic, para net, bamboo rack, cutting scissors, LED lights (11 watts), timer,
electrical installation, pH meter, lux meter, bucket, gembor, thermohydrometer, sprayer,
measuring cup, ruler, hollow term, analytical scales, Munsell Plant Tissue Color Chart,
stationery, and camera.
This study is an experimental study with a Complete Group Random Design (RAKL) with
two factors and three repeats. The first factor is the variation of the planting medium (M) which
consists of:
(M1) = solid waste fertilizer of cowsheds, husk charcoal, bamboo leaf humus (1:1:1).
(M2) = solid waste fertilizer of cowshed, husk charcoal, cocopeat (1:1:1).
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(M3) = solid waste fertilizer of the cowshed, husk charcoal, wood sawdust compost
(1:1:1).
The second factor is the concentration of leaf fertilizer (10-55-10) which consists of :
(P0) = 0 g/l (control).
(P1) = 2 g/l.
(P2) = 4 g/l.
(P3) = 6 g/l.
The variables observed in this study were plant height, header diameter, stem diameter,
number of leaves, number of branches, number of flowers, flower diameter, flower initiation
time, flower coloring time, harvest time, and flower color.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Variety analysis (Test F) the influence of planting media variations and leaf fertilizer
concentrations (10-55-10) on vegetative and generative growth variables of chrysanthemum
plants covering plant height, header diameter, stem diameter, number of leaves, number of
branches, number of flowers, flower diameter, flower initiation time, flower coloring time,
harvest time, and flower color are listed in the following table.
Table 1. Average Value of Variable Vegetative Growth Observation of Chrysanthemum
Plants Merahayani Variety is not facing Variations in Planting Media with Leaf Fertilizer
Concentration (10-55-10)
Treatment
Plant Height
(Cm)
Header
Diameter
(Cm)
Rod
Diameter
(Cm)
Number of
Branches
Planting Media Variations
M1
27,46a
21,41a
0,36a
5,30a
M2
22,33c
15,43c
0,31c
4,31c
M3
24,80b
17,96b
0,33b
5,22b
F Count
3,45
6,02
7,81
2,34
F Table 5%
2,93
2,93
2,93
2,93
Leaf Fertilizer Concentration (10-55-10)
P0
25,48
17,51
0,32
5,01
P1
25,36
19,47
0,34
5,20
P2
24,34
18,45
0,33
4,72
P3
24,27
17,62
0,34
4,84
F Count
0,36
0,14
0,07
0,15
F Table 5%
3,08
3,08
3,08
3,08
Media Planting X Leaf Fertilizer Concentration
M1P0
27,90
20,01
0,34
5,20
M1P1
29,16
24,48
0,37
5,43
M1P2
26,41
21,15
0,36
5,58
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M1P3
26,36
19,99
0,37
4,99
M2P0
22,07
14,90
0,29
4,29
M2P1
23,14
15,93
0,33
4,96
M2P2
23,03
16,15
0,32
3,83
M2P3
21,13
14,73
0,30
4,15
M3P0
26,52
17,63
0,33
5,54
M3P1
23,79
17,99
0,33
5,21
M3P2
23,57
18,06
0,31
4,73
M3P3
25,32
18,15
0,36
5,39
F Count
0,23
0,41
0,18
0,01
F Table 5%
3,29
3,29
3,29
3,29
Description: The number followed by the same letter in the same column does not differ
markedly according to the DMRT test (Duncan Multiple Range Test) on α 5%, M1 = humus
of bamboo leaves, M2 = cocopeat, M3 = compost sawdust, P0 = leaf fertilizer 0 g / l (control),
P1 = leaf fertilizer 2 g / l, P2 = leaf fertilizer 4 g / l, P3 = leaf fertilizer 6 g / l.
Table 2. The Average Value of Generative Growth Observation Variable (Yield) of
Merahayani Variety Chrysanthemum Plant is facing Variations in Planting Media with Leaf
Fertilizer Concentration (10-55-10)
Treatment
Number
of
Flowers
Flower
Diameter
(Cm)
Initiation
(HST)
Coloring
(HST)
Harvest
Time (HST)
Planting Media Variations
M1
36,49a
4,74a
45,52a
102,13a
117,65a
M2
20,34c
4,10c
59,32c
137,12b
157,13b
M3
31,39b
4,49b
50,76b
109,15a
127,12a
F Count
3,34
2,87
1,14
8,36
7,23
F Table 5%
2,93
2,93
2,93
2,93
2,93
F Table 1%
3,99
3,99
3,99
3,99
3,99
Leaf Fertilizer Concentration (10-55-10)
P0
25,61b
4,48
51,67
110,91
125,73
P1
29,67a
4,55
55,67
109,72
130,90
P2
31,10a
4,37
49,58
119,65
135,80
P3
31,25a
4,35
46,14
124,24
143,44
F Count
0,02
0,37
0,11
0,05
0,06
F Table 5%
3,08
3,08
3,08
3,08
3,08
M X P Interaction
M1P0
31,28c
5,03
46,17
94,33
110,08
M1P1
37,40b
4,88
44,42
97,08
111,25
M1P2
41,97a
4.48
45,58
105,83
118,17
M1P3
35,31b
4,56
45,92
111,25
131,08
M2P0
15.95g
3,85
68,67
129,56
143,45
M2P1
25.01e
4,22
56
124,75
155,19
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663 Interdisciplinary Social Studies, 1(6), Mar 2022
M2P2
19,38fg
4,21
57,33
148.69
162,64
M2P3
21,03f
4,06
55,28
145,50
167,25
M3P0
29,59cd
4,56
51,67
108,83
123,67
M3P1
26.60de
4,55
55,67
107,33
126,25
M3P2
31,96c
4,41
49,58
104,42
131,97
M3P3
37,40b
4,43
46,14
116
127,12
F Count
0,02
0,21
0,16
0,59
0,9
F Table 5%
3,29
3,29
3,29
3,29
3,29
Description: The number followed by the same letter in the same column does not differ
markedly according to the DMRT test (Duncan Multiple Range Test) on α 5%, M1 = humus
of bamboo leaves, M2 = cocopeat, M3 = compost sawdust, P0 = leaf fertilizer 0 g / l (control),
P1 = leaf fertilizer 2 g / l, P2 = leaf fertilizer 4 g / l, P3 = leaf fertilizer 6 g / l.
Table 3. Chrysanthemum Color Observation Results Of Merahayani Variety Using Munsell
Plant Tissue Color Chart
Treatment
Percentage of Hue Value (%)
Value
Chroma
2.5 R
5 R
10 R
Planting Media Variations
M1
50
41,67
8,33
4,69
7,38
M2
54,06
40,54
5,41
5,19
7,89
M3
51,11
37,78
11,11
4,88
7,75
Leaf Fertilizer Concentration (10-55-10)
P0
45,16
41,94
12,90
4,97
7,74
P1
57,14
40
2,86
4,78
7,43
P2
41,94
48,39
9,68
5
7,78
P3
61,77
29,41
8,82
4,93
7,74
M x P interaction
M1P0
41,67
41,67
16,67
4,83
7,3
M1P1
50
50
-
4,5
7
M1P2
50
41,67
8,33
4,42
7,5
M1P3
58,33
33,33
8,33
5
7,67
M2P0
57,14
42,86
-
5,22
8,22
M2P1
50
50
-
3
7,44
M2P2
44,44
33,33
22,22
5,25
7,67
M2P3
63,63
36,36
-
5,28
8,22
M3P0
41,67
41,67
16,67
4,83
7,67
M3P1
66,67
25
8,33
4,83
7,83
M3P2
30
70
-
5,33
8,17
M3P3
63,63
18,18
18,18
4,5
7,33
Based on tables 1, 2, and 3, it can be known that variations in planting media affect the
height of the plant, the diameter of the header, the diameter of the stem, the number of branches,
the number of flowers, the diameter of the flower, the time of initiation of flowers, the time of
Studying Chrysan’s Growth and Outcome on Planting Media’s Variation and Leave Manure
664 Interdisciplinary Social Studies, 1(6), Mar 2022
coloring of flowers, and the time of harvest, and have no effect on the number of leaves. The
concentration of leaf fertilizer (10-55-10) affects only the number of flowers. The interaction
between the planting medium and the concentration of leaf fertilizer (10-55-10) affects the
number of leaves and the number of flowers.
Influence of Planting Media Variations
Plant Height
The following figure (figure 1) shows that the variety of planting media affects the height
of the plant, with the highest yield being in the planting media M1 (cow solid waste fertilizer:
husk charcoal: bamboo leaf humus (1: 1: 1)) which is 27.46 cm; followed by variations of M3
planting media (solid waste manure of cowshed, husk charcoal, wood sawdust compost (1:1:1))
24.80 cm; and M2 (solid waste fertilizer of cowshed, husk charcoal, cocopeat (1:1:1)) 22.33
cm.
Figure 1. Effect of Variety of Planting Media on Chrysanthemum Plant Height
The ideal standard of pot chrysanthemum height is + 24 - 35 cm or 2 - 2.5 times the height
of the pot (Kurnia, 2017) so that the composition of the planting medium M1 (solid waste
fertilizer of cowshed, husk charcoal, bamboo leaf humus (1:1: 1)) and M3 (solid waste fertilizer
of cowshed, husk charcoal, wood sawdust compost (1:1:1)) has met the high standards of ideal
pot chrysanthemum plants, while in the composition of planting media M2 (solid waste
fertilizer cow shed, husk charcoal, cocopeat (1: 1: 1:1)) has not been able to meet the high
standards of ideal pot chrysanthemum plants.
Bamboo leaves and wood sawdust compost are known to have a high enough nitrogen
content and low C / N ratio so that it is easy to decompose and make the nitrogen content in it
become available for plant needs (Sawaluddin et al., 2018). Variations in cocopeat planting
media (M2) contain high tannins that inhibit plant growth, this is supported by the results of
research Al Fandi et al. (2020) which shows that cocopeat planting media produces the lowest
eggplant height due to the low ability of cocopeat in resisting nutrients which plays a role in
the process of cleavage of meristematic cells at the end of the plant.
Studying Chrysan’s Growth and Outcome on Planting Media’s Variation and Leave Manure
665 Interdisciplinary Social Studies, 1(6), Mar 2022
Header Diameter
Figure 2. Effect of Planting Media Variations on the Diameter of Chrysanthemum Plant
Headers
Figure 2 shows that the treatment of M1 (solid waste fertilizer of cowshed, husk charcoal,
bamboo leaf humus (1:1: 1)) gives the best results, it is because of the nutrient content in the
M1 planting medium is complete and easily absorbed by the roots of the plant.
The diameter of the plant header is strongly influenced by the growth of the parts found in
the plant such as stems, branching, number of leaves, and number of flowers. According to
Rusdi et al. (2019), bamboo leaves have a high content of P and K elements. Bamboo leaves
are also known to have silica content (Saputra et al., 2017) which can increase plant resistance
to various diseases, increase root oxidation, increase cell wall thickness as pest protection, and
increase the activity of enzymes involved in photosynthesis (Wibowo et al., 2020). Increased
photosynthetic activity will increase the plant's high growth rate, number of leaves, stem
diameter, and number of branches so that it will affect the diameter of the plant header.
Rod Diameter
Figure 3. Effect of Planting Media Variations on the Diameter of Chrysanthemum Plant
Stems
Bamboo leaf humus and wood sawdust compost are organic planting media that have a
high C-organic content. The high C-organic content in the growing media of bamboo leaf
humus and wood sawdust compost combined with husk charcoal can increase the diameter of
plant stems, it is in accordance with the results of Andani et al. (2020) research that C-organic
is able to help the absorption of nutrients by chili plant roots so that plant growth becomes
better. The husk charcoal has a SiO2 content of 52% and C 31% which can improve the
physical properties of the planting medium.
Studying Chrysan’s Growth and Outcome on Planting Media’s Variation and Leave Manure
666 Interdisciplinary Social Studies, 1(6), Mar 2022
Number of Branches
Figure 4. The influence of variations in planting media on the number of plant branches.
The composition of planting media M1 (solid waste fertilizer of cowshed, husk charcoal,
bamboo leaf humus (1:1: 1)) and M3 (solid waste fertilizer of cowshed, husk charcoal, sawdust
compost (1:1:1)) is known to have a high nutrient content of N, P, K, and also C-organic so
that the nutritional needs of plants are met. The decomposition process that occurs in the
growing media of bamboo leaf humus and wood sawdust compost makes nutrient P available
to plants. Element P plays an important role in the formation of plant bodies such as plant
branches and plays an important role in the process of photosynthesis. Element P will be
converted into a pyrophosphate bond in the form of energy-rich ATP and ADP compounds
then transferred to all parts of the plant and used for plant growth (Hartati et al., 2020).
Number of Flowers
The composition of planting media M1 (solid waste fertilizer of cowshed, husk charcoal,
bamboo leaf humus (1:1: 1)) and M3 (solid waste manure of cowshed, husk charcoal, sawdust
compost (1:1:1)) is known to have a high content of nutrient P. Nutrient P is excellent for the
formation of flowers, the formation of fruits and seeds. Lack of nutrient P will interfere with
the generative growth of the plant. The influence of variations in planting media on the number
of flowers can be seen in the following figure.
Figure 5. Effect of Variety of Planting Media on the Number of Flowers
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667 Interdisciplinary Social Studies, 1(6), Mar 2022
Flower Diameter
Figure 6. Effect of Variations in Planting Media on Flower Diameter
The result of generative growth cannot be separated from its vegetative growth. The better
the plant during the vegetative phase, the better the plant yields in the generative phase. Based
on the results of Hamsyah & Sitawati’s research (2020), the diameter of the flower is related
to the diameter of the plant stem. Plants that have more food reserves, these food reserves when
entering the generative phase will be translocated to the flower section. This will affect the
diameter of the flower and the time the flower appears. The largest flower diameter yields are
the same in order as the diameter of the stem, ranging from the highest M1 (solid waste fertilizer
of cowsheds, husk charcoal, bamboo leaf humus (1:1: 1)), M3 (solid waste fertilizer of
cowshed, husk charcoal, sawdust compost (1:1: 1)), and M3 (solid waste fertilizer of cowsheds,
husk charcoal, cocopeat (1:1:1)).
Flower Initiation Time
Figure 7. Effect of Planting Media Variations on Flower Initiation Time
Based on the description of the chrysanthemum flowers of the Merahayani variety, the
time when the flowers begin to appear is at the time the plant is 60-70 days old. The average
age of initiation of chrysanthemum flowers on M1 treatment (solid waste fertilizer of cowshed,
husk charcoal, bamboo leaf humus (1:1: 1)) 45.52 HST; M3 (solid waste manure of cowshed,
husk charcoal, sawdust compost (1:1:1)) 50.76; and M2 (solid waste fertilizer of cowshed, husk
charcoal, cocopeat (1:1:1)) 59.32 HST; It is faster when compared to the description of the
plant. This is influenced by the length of the irradiation. Chrysanthemum plants are short-day
ornamental plants that will flower if the night is longer than the minimum length of the critical
point (Huang et al., 2021). According to Thakur & Grewal (2019), the tipping point of
chrysanthemum plants is 13.5 hours. Widyastuti & Dewi (2018) added, to optimize their