Women's Role Repositioning in Security Sector

Authors

  • Helmy Suryo Dewanto School of Strategic and Global Studies, Universitas Indonesia, Central Jakarta, DKI Jakarta
  • Margaretha Hanita School of Strategic and Global Studies, Universitas Indonesia, Central Jakarta, DKI Jakarta
  • Stepi Anriani School of Strategic and Global Studies, Universitas Indonesia, Central Jakarta, DKI Jakarta; Indonesian State Intelligence Agency, Bogor, West Java

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.55324/iss.v2i9.472

Keywords:

intelligence, national security, patriarchy, masculinity

Abstract

Background: The world of intelligence and security is still seen as the realm of men, due to the strong patriarchal culture and existing stigma, the world of intelligence and security is seen as a world that requires physical abilities, mental resilience, aggressiveness, which are considered to be more owned by men.

Aim: This research is intended to describe the role of women in the intelligence and security sector, the obstacles and constraints for female officers to be more involved in intelligence and national security activities, and the importance of repositioning the role of women in fields that are still often seen as a male world.

Method: This study used a qualitative research method by conducting literature studies, observing in the field, and collecting data related to this research.

Findings: Awareness about the role of women in the security sector such as intelligence, law enforcement, military, needs to be continuously disseminated to all parties, not only to policy makers, organizational leaders, men, or the community, but also to women themselves so that they are not skeptical of their ability to assume a more strategic role in the sector.

References

Aamodt, M. G. (2015). Industrial/organizational psychology: An applied approach. Cengage Learning.

Albright, M. K. (2012). Women in leadership. Central Intelligence Agency.

Ardener, S. (2021). Ground rules and social maps for women: An introduction. In Women and Space: Ground Rules and Social Maps. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003135081-1

Aristotles. (1983). Politics. Remzi Publishing House.

Caso, F., & Zimmerman, S. (2021, December 1). Women play a critical role in diplomacy and security, so why aren’t more in positions of power. The Conversation.

Chen, B., & Lin, K.-W. (2013). Are females suitable for police duty? Journal of Social Sciences, 9(3), 89.

Child, J. (1997). Strategic choice in the analysis of action, structure, organizations and environment: Retrospect and prospect. Organization Studies, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/017084069701800104

Danby, G., & Ciesielska, M. (2021). Gender bias in organisations: From the arts to individualised coaching. In Gender Bias in Organisations: From the Arts to Individualised Coaching. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003018117

Desveaux, G., & Devillard, S. (2008). Women matter II: Female leadership, a competitive edge for the future. In McKinsey&Company, Inc. (Vol. 13, Issue 9).

Diop, B., & Chiwara, L. (2017). Handbook for reporters on women, peace and security: Practicing gender - Responsive reporting in conflict affected countries in Africa. African Union and UN Women.

Dovhan, O. D., Yurchenko, O. M., Naidon, J. O., Peliukh, O. S., Tkachuk, N. I., & Gulati, K. (2022). Formation of the counter intelligence strategy of Ukraine: national and legal dimension. World Journal of Engineering, 19(2). https://doi.org/10.1108/WJE-06-2021-0358

Fox, W. T. R., & Buzan, B. (1985). People, states, and fear: The national security problem in international relations. International Journal, 40(4). https://doi.org/10.2307/40202323

Frinaldi, A. (2012). Faktor penyebab terdorongnya wanita pernah menikah dan sudah menikah melakukan kejahatan. Humanus, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.24036/jh.v11i1.621

Fritzfold, E. (2022). Why we need more women working in law enforcement. University of San Diego.

Hakim, A. L., & Sukabdi, Z. A. (2023). Analysis of the relationship between climate change impacts and terrorism in ASEAN (1990-2018). Indonesian Journal of Multidisciplinary Science, 2(4). https://doi.org/10.55324/ijoms.v2i4.357

Hanita, M. (2019). Pemikiran-pemikiran stratejik intelijen. UI Publishing.

Hasan, N. I., & Kurnia Putra, A. (2021). Peran perempuan dalam misi pemeliharaan perdamaian dan keamanan internasional. Uti Possidetis: Journal of International Law, 1(2). https://doi.org/10.22437/up.v1i2.10179

Jemadu, W. (2005). Reformasi intelijen negara. Pacivis and Center for Global Civil Society Studies.

Lembaga Ketahanan Nasional. (2013). Modul 3 sub BS konsepsi ketahanan nasional, Lembaga Ketahanan Nasional Rl, Program Pendidikan Singkat Angkatan (PPSA) XIX. Perpustakaan Lemhannas.

Mengko, D. M., Bhakti, I. N., Samego, I., Yanuarti, S., Siregar, S. N., & Haripin, M. (2016). Intelijen dalam pusaran demokrasi di Indonesia pasca orde baru. Jurnal Penelitian Politik, 13(1).

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative analysis: A methods sourcebook. SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mohamed, Z. M., Majid, A. H. A., & Ahmad, N. (2010). Tapping new possibility in accounting research. Qualitative Research in Accounting, Malaysian Case.

Mulia, M. (2019). Perempuan dalam gerakan terorisme di Indonesia. AL-WARDAH, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.46339/al-wardah.v12i1.136

Munasri. (2020). Model pengembangan karier polisi wanita di Kepolisian Daerah Jawa Timur. Perpustakaan Universitas Airlangga.

Ocktaviana, S., Santoso, W. M., & Purwoko, D. (2014). Peran-peran perempuan di wilayah konflik: Antara korban, penyintas, dan agen perdamaian. Jurnal Masyarakat & Budaya, 16(3).

Özpek, B. B. (2019). The state’s changing role regarding the Kurdish question of Turkey: From consistent tutelage to volatile securitization. Alternatives, 44(1), 35–49.

Paine, J. (2021). The dictator’s power-sharing dilemma: Countering dual outsider threats. American Journal of Political Science, 65(2). https://doi.org/10.1111/ajps.12547

Purnomo, A. (2006). Teori peran laki-laki dan perempuan. STAIN Ponorogo.

Shulsky, A. N., & Schmitt, G. J. (2002). Silent warfare: understanding the world of intelligence. Potomac Books, Inc.

Siriwat, B. (2021). Female police officers in Thailand: Gender inequality and organisational transformation from a cultural perspective. Psychology and Education Journal, 58(2).

Sjoberg, L. (2009). Introduction to security studies: Feminist contributions. Security Studies, 18(2), 183–213.

Starheim, R. P. (2019). Women in policing: Breaking barriers and blazing a path. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of ….

Theobald, N. A., & Haider-Markel, D. P. (2009). Race, bureaucracy, and symbolic representation: Interactions between citizens and police. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 19(2). https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/mun006

Tickner, J. A. (1992). Gender in international relations: Feminist perspectives on achieving global security. Columbia University Press.

UN Women. (2022, October). Women, peace and security | UN Women – Headquarters. UN Women.

United Nations, & OHCHR. (2022). Women’s human rights and gender-related concerns in situations of conflict and instability. United Nations.

van der Heijden, M. (2017). Future research on women and crime. Crime, Histoire & Sociétés, 21(2). https://doi.org/10.4000/chs.1833

Vermeij, L. (2020). Woman first, soldier second: Taboos and stigmas facing military women in UN peace operations. International Peace Institute.

Windrem, R. (2013). Sisterhood of spies: Women crack the code at the CIA. NBC News Investigations.

Downloads

Published

2023-06-23