A scoping review: Nurses' workload in patients for fall risk screening


  • Oktarisa Khairiyah A. Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Central Java
  • Zahroh Shaluhiyah Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Central Java
  • Cahya Tri Purnami Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Central Java




fall risk, nurse, screening, workload


Half of all falls result in injury, of which 10% are seriously impacted. Direct medical expenses resulting from falls amount to nearly $30 billion annually. Nurses must engage cognitive, affective, and actions that put patient safety first. The breadth of the nurse's role can allow for the risk of errors in service. This scoping review is prepared to discuss the effect of nurse workload in screening the risk of falls on patients. The method used here is scoping review which is used to develop a 'map' regarding the effect of nurse workload in screening the current patient's fall risk. The search databases used in this writing include: SINTA, PubMed, EBSCOhost, and SagePub. The search was conducted on October 16, 2023 and the included studies were research taken in 2013-2023. The authors found seven scientific journals that discuss the effect of workload in screening patient fall risk. The four journals came from Indonesia, one journal each from Brazil, Taiwan, and Canada. Workload is consistently associated with suboptimal fall risk screening. This is because nurses will be busy doing other things, so screening and monitoring patients from the risk of falling cannot be done properly.


Ariga, R. A. (2020). Buku Ajar Implementasi Manajemen Pelayanan Kesehatan Dalam Keperawatan. Deepublish.

Arksey, H., & O’Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory and Practice, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616

Arso, S. P., & Sriatmi, A. (2017). Gambaran Budaya Keselamatan Pasien Di RS Roemani Muhamaddiyah Semarang. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat, 5(1), 118–125.

Chiang, H.-Y., Hsiao, Y.-C., & Lee, H.-F. (2017). Predictors of Hospital Nurses’ Safety Practices. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 32(4). https://doi.org/10.1097/ncq.0000000000000240

Jaggi, P., Tomlinson, R., McLelland, K., Ma, W., Manson-McLeod, C., & Bullard, M. J. (2018). Nursing duties and accreditation standards and their impacts: The nursing perspective. Applied Nursing Research, 40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2017.12.009

Julius, M., Kresevic, D., Turcoliveri, M., Cialdella-Kam, L., & Burant, C. J. (2017). Malnutrition as a Fall Risk Factor. Federal Practitioner?: For the Health Care Professionals of the VA, DoD, and PHS, 34(2).

KARS. (2019). Instrumen Akreditasi Rumah Sakit Standar Akreditasi. Komite Akreditasi Rumah Sakit.

Levac, D., Colquhoun, H., & O’Brien, K. K. (2010). Scoping studies: Advancing the methodology. Implementation Science, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-69

Möller, G., & de Magalhães, A. M. M. (2015). Bed baths: Nursing staff workload and patient safety. Texto e Contexto Enfermagem, 24(4). https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-0707201500003110014

Montero-Odasso, M. M. (2016). Falls as a geriatric syndrome: Mechanisms and risk identification. In Osteoporosis in Older Persons: Advances in Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Approaches: Second Edition. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25976-5_10

Nadia, P., & Permanasari, V. Y. (2018). Compliance of the Nurse for Fall Risk Assessment as a Procedure of Patient Safety: A Systematic Review. KnE Life Sciences, 4(9). https://doi.org/10.18502/kls.v4i9.3573

Nur, H. A., Dharmana, E., & Santoso, A. (2017). Pelaksanaan Asesmen Risiko Jatuh di Rumah Sakit. Jurnal Ners Dan Kebidanan Indonesia, 5(2). https://doi.org/10.21927/jnki.2017.5(2).123-133

Pasquetti, P., Apicella, L., & Mangone, G. (2014). Pathogenesis and treatment of falls in elderly. Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism, 11(3). https://doi.org/10.11138/ccmbm/2014.11.3.222

Phelan, E. A., Mahoney, J. E., Voit, J. C., & Stevens, J. A. (2015). Assessment and Management of Fall Risk in Primary Care Settings. In Medical Clinics of North America (Vol. 99, Issue 2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2014.11.004

Purnomo, R. (2021). Hubungan Beban Kerja Dan Pengetahuan Dengan Pelaksanaan Keselamatan Pasien (Patien Safety): Literatur Review. Viva Medika?: Jurnal Kesehatan, Kebidanan, Dan Keperawatan, 15(1).

Rahmawati, R. (2020). Faktor Penyebab Insiden Jatuh Pada Pasien Rawat Inap di Rumah Sakit [Doctoral Dissertation]. STIKES Yayasan RS Dr. Soetomo Surabaya.

Ross, C., Rogers, C., & King, C. (2019). Safety culture and an invisible nursing workload. Collegian, 26(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colegn.2018.02.002

Rubenstein, L. Z. (2006). Falls in older people: Epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention. Age and Ageing, 35(SUPPL.2). https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afl084

Sulawa, I. K., Wirawan, M. A., & Putri, W. C. W. S. (2021). Level of knowledge and workload are associated with nurse’s adherence in implementing fall prevention procedures at Tabanan District Hospital, Bali. Public Health and Preventive Medicine Archive, 9(1).

Syam, N. S. (2017). Implementasi Budaya Keselamatan Pasien oleh Perawat di Rumah Sakit Ibnu Sina Makassar. Jurnal Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, 11(2).

Todd, C., & Skelton, D. (2004). What are the main risk factors for falls amongst older people and what are the most effective interventions to prevent these falls? World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe.

Wardhani, V. (2017). Manajemen Keselamatan Pasien di Rumah Sakit. Universitas Brawijaya Press.

Watson, B. J., Salmoni, A. W., & Zecevic, A. A. (2016). The use of the Morse Fall Scale in an acute care hospital. Clinical Nursing Studies, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.5430/cns.v4n2p32

Wola, V. D. H. (2021). Evaluasi Pelaksanaan Standar Operasional Prosedur Pencegahan Risiko Jatuh Di Rumah Sakit Kristen Lende Moripa Waikabubak Tahun 2021 [Doctoral Dissertation]. STIKES Bethesda Yakkum Yogyakarta.

Zaninotto, P., Huang, Y. T., Di Gessa, G., Abell, J., Lassale, C., & Steptoe, A. (2020). Polypharmacy is a risk factor for hospital admission due to a fall: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. BMC Public Health, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09920-x